This is a preview. Log in to read the full article. Don't have a log-in?

Learn more Request a demo

Philippines: Equal opportunities

Original and updating authors: Marianne M. Miguel and Easter Princess U. Castro-Ty, SyCip Salazar Hernandez & Gatmaitan

See the legal services provided by the authors of XpertHR International > Philippines, including any discounts/offers for subscribers.


  • Discrimination in relation to employment is prohibited on grounds including sex, race, creed, age, disability, "solo parent" status, and HIV, hepatitis B or tuberculosis status. (See General)
  • Various specific rules govern discrimination on the prohibited grounds, notably in respect of discrimination against women, age discrimination and disability discrimination. (See Specific provisions)
  • Certain potential exceptions apply to the prohibition of discrimination, notably when particular characteristics are a bona fide occupational qualification for holding a position. (See Exceptions)
  • Sexual harassment and gender-based sexual harassment in the employment environment is unlawful and employers must prevent or deter the commission of such acts and provide procedures for their resolution, settlement or prosecution. (See Sexual harassment)
  • It is an unlawful "unfair labour practice" for an employer to dismiss or otherwise prejudice or discriminate against an employee for having given or being about to give testimony under the legislation prohibiting discrimination on the grounds of sex, race, creed or trade union membership. (See Victimisation)
  • Private-sector employers are not generally required, or permitted, to give preference to people from under-represented or disadvantaged groups in recruitment or promotion. (See Positive action)
  • Discrimination in relation to employment on the prohibited grounds is generally a criminal offence, while an employee or job applicant who believes that they have suffered unlawful discrimination or sexual harassment may bring civil court proceedings against the employer, seeking damages and other remedies. (See Remedies and penalties)